As far as I can tell as a foreigner (Canadian) the supposed biases of conservatives/republicans and liberals/democrats revolve around:
- treating people as equals, but not the same
- money - what it is, who should have it, how it's used, etc.
As an example, consider raising the minimum wage. In my (admittedly limited) experience, Lib/Dems tend to argue that the consequences will be overwhelmingly positive, while Con/Reps argue that the outcomes will be overwhelmingly negative. Both cite various studies to 'prove' their points. Of course a minimum wage that is set above the poverty line will have serious economic consequences - positive and negative, short and long term. So did the abolition of slavery, elimination of child labour, and reducing the work-week to five days and 40 or so hours.
I'm not sure that this discussion is really about science at all, and I'm not sure that conservatism is correlated or causal when it comes to attitudes toward change. As far as I can tell resistance to change is founded in avoidance of loss*, which depends on what you value. If someone sees the current state of affairs as being beneficial and a proposed future state as being less beneficial - well, they're going to be opposed to change. The same goes for conservatives, liberals, and any other breed of human.
If this loss-resistance idea is correct, we should make better progress by asking, "What loss(es) does [demographic] expect related to [science thing], from their own point of view?" That last clause is rather important, by the way.
*Resistance to change can be motivated by anticipation of losing a beneficial current state or from anticipation of a less beneficial future state. In practice these two can often be lumped together, but not always. For example, when rolling out new software in your company the LikeItNow will oppose the change because the current software is doing just what they want. The HateThatFutures will oppose the change because the new software won't do what they want. For the HateThatFutures you could turn them into supporters if you find a software package that works for them. There is not such option for the LikeItNows.