I thought the rogues were a bit off the mark on teleology, taking it into one of its poorer extensions. The word means, literally, "the study of the good end," so any choice you make, if made because you seek a certain outcome, is teleological. This is most of us, most of the time.
It is not that Darwin dismissed teleology, rather he dismissed a particular kind of teleology (religious ends), and embraced another one, in which the basic "good end" is simply to survive and reproduce. We are all mostly teleological decision-makers, trying to achieve our own definition of "good ends" as expeditiously as possible.
Especially when pressed for time and urgency, humans quickly throw out deontology (rules and duties), empathy, and meta-ethics (higher principles) and grasp at their best expectation of survival.
My favorite example is to think of the FIRST thought that comes into your head when you see a police car's flashing light in your rear-view mirror signaling for you to pull over. My bet is your FIRST reaction is "How can I get out of this mess as easily as possible?"
Most of the ruminations in the Syria conflict are most teleological, guessing what gets us to a good end (and what is that?) as expeditiously as possible. Obama's drone policy is another example. A few dead terrorists, and maybe a couple civilians, are a better end than sending soldiers into risky situations.