Author Topic: Artificial Sweeteners and Gut Biota  (Read 389 times)

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Offline brilligtove

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Artificial Sweeteners and Gut Biota
« on: October 01, 2018, 03:25:32 PM »
Measuring Artificial Sweeteners Toxicity Using a Bioluminescent Bacterial Panel
https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102454

Harpaz, D.; Yeo, L.P.; Cecchini, F.; Koon, T.H.P.; Kushmaro, A.; Tok, A.I.Y.; Marks, R.S.; Eltzov, E.   Measuring Artificial Sweeteners Toxicity Using a Bioluminescent Bacterial Panel. Molecules 2018, 23, 2454.

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Abstract
Artificial sweeteners have become increasingly controversial due to their questionable influence on consumers’ health. They are introduced in most foods and many consume this added ingredient without their knowledge. Currently, there is still no consensus regarding the health consequences of artificial sweeteners intake as they have not been fully investigated. Consumption of artificial sweeteners has been linked with adverse effects such as cancer, weight gain, metabolic disorders, type-2 diabetes and alteration of gut microbiota activity. Moreover, artificial sweeteners have been identified as emerging environmental pollutants, and can be found in receiving waters, i.e., surface waters, groundwater aquifers and drinking waters. In this study, the relative toxicity of six FDA-approved artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose, saccharine, neotame, advantame and acesulfame potassium-k (ace-k)) and that of ten sport supplements containing these artificial sweeteners, were tested using genetically modified bioluminescent bacteria from E. coli. The bioluminescent bacteria, which luminesce when they detect toxicants, act as a sensing model representative of the complex microbial system. Both induced luminescent signals and bacterial growth were measured. Toxic effects were found when the bacteria were exposed to certain concentrations of the artificial sweeteners. In the bioluminescence activity assay, two toxicity response patterns were observed, namely, the induction and inhibition of the bioluminescent signal. An inhibition response pattern may be observed in the response of sucralose in all the tested strains: TV1061 (MLIC = 1 mg/mL), DPD2544 (MLIC = 50 mg/mL) and DPD2794 (MLIC = 100 mg/mL). It is also observed in neotame in the DPD2544 (MLIC = 2 mg/mL) strain. On the other hand, the induction response pattern may be observed in its response in saccharin in TV1061 (MLIndC = 5 mg/mL) and DPD2794 (MLIndC = 5 mg/mL) strains, aspartame in DPD2794 (MLIndC = 4 mg/mL) strain, and ace-k in DPD2794 (MLIndC = 10 mg/mL) strain. The results of this study may help in understanding the relative toxicity of artificial sweeteners on E. coli, a sensing model representative of the gut bacteria. Furthermore, the tested bioluminescent bacterial panel can potentially be used for detecting artificial sweeteners in the environment, using a specific mode-of-action pattern.

I like this approach as promising for environmental testing. But does it really tell us much about what is happening in the guts of humans or other animals? I don't have enough biology to understand what "toxic effects" were found, or whether they might be generalized to other gut biota.
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Offline bachfiend

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Re: Artificial Sweeteners and Gut Biota
« Reply #1 on: October 01, 2018, 04:43:26 PM »
Measuring Artificial Sweeteners Toxicity Using a Bioluminescent Bacterial Panel
https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102454

Harpaz, D.; Yeo, L.P.; Cecchini, F.; Koon, T.H.P.; Kushmaro, A.; Tok, A.I.Y.; Marks, R.S.; Eltzov, E.   Measuring Artificial Sweeteners Toxicity Using a Bioluminescent Bacterial Panel. Molecules 2018, 23, 2454.

Full Text

Quote
Abstract
Artificial sweeteners have become increasingly controversial due to their questionable influence on consumers’ health. They are introduced in most foods and many consume this added ingredient without their knowledge. Currently, there is still no consensus regarding the health consequences of artificial sweeteners intake as they have not been fully investigated. Consumption of artificial sweeteners has been linked with adverse effects such as cancer, weight gain, metabolic disorders, type-2 diabetes and alteration of gut microbiota activity. Moreover, artificial sweeteners have been identified as emerging environmental pollutants, and can be found in receiving waters, i.e., surface waters, groundwater aquifers and drinking waters. In this study, the relative toxicity of six FDA-approved artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose, saccharine, neotame, advantame and acesulfame potassium-k (ace-k)) and that of ten sport supplements containing these artificial sweeteners, were tested using genetically modified bioluminescent bacteria from E. coli. The bioluminescent bacteria, which luminesce when they detect toxicants, act as a sensing model representative of the complex microbial system. Both induced luminescent signals and bacterial growth were measured. Toxic effects were found when the bacteria were exposed to certain concentrations of the artificial sweeteners. In the bioluminescence activity assay, two toxicity response patterns were observed, namely, the induction and inhibition of the bioluminescent signal. An inhibition response pattern may be observed in the response of sucralose in all the tested strains: TV1061 (MLIC = 1 mg/mL), DPD2544 (MLIC = 50 mg/mL) and DPD2794 (MLIC = 100 mg/mL). It is also observed in neotame in the DPD2544 (MLIC = 2 mg/mL) strain. On the other hand, the induction response pattern may be observed in its response in saccharin in TV1061 (MLIndC = 5 mg/mL) and DPD2794 (MLIndC = 5 mg/mL) strains, aspartame in DPD2794 (MLIndC = 4 mg/mL) strain, and ace-k in DPD2794 (MLIndC = 10 mg/mL) strain. The results of this study may help in understanding the relative toxicity of artificial sweeteners on E. coli, a sensing model representative of the gut bacteria. Furthermore, the tested bioluminescent bacterial panel can potentially be used for detecting artificial sweeteners in the environment, using a specific mode-of-action pattern.

I like this approach as promising for environmental testing. But does it really tell us much about what is happening in the guts of humans or other animals? I don't have enough biology to understand what "toxic effects" were found, or whether they might be generalized to other gut biota.

I’m not certain how significant it is, but I make my own drinking yoghurt at home.  I put 1.3 litres of skim milk with 2 tablespoons of commercially available yoghurt in a glass jar in an esky containing warm water keeping the temperature at between 35 to 40 degrees Celsius for around 6 hours producing new yoghurt which is often very thick.

But the times I’ve attempted to introduce added flavour by adding white chocolate or ordinary chocolate drink powder (which contains Aspartame as a sweetener) have failed completely.  The culture just doesn’t take and I’m left with 1.3 litres of warm faintly yoghurt flavoured milk.  I hypothesise that the Aspartame has a bacteriostatic effect on the Acidophilus bacteria of the yoghurt (which is also a normal gut bacterium).  I’m not certain whether this true or not.  I couldn’t find anything about it on the Internet.
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Offline lonely moa

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Re: Artificial Sweeteners and Gut Biota
« Reply #2 on: October 03, 2018, 01:42:31 PM »
May I suggest milk kefir.  Wonderfully sour.  I let a litre of unpasteurised milk and a tablespoon of the mother sit on the kitchen bench for four or five days before use.  I read that it is the best supplement for one's gut biota, and it would be less delightful with any sort of sweetener or flavour. 

Artificial sweeteners just seem to me to come in a distant second place to sugar or honey when it comes to flavour or health.
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Offline bachfiend

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Re: Artificial Sweeteners and Gut Biota
« Reply #3 on: October 03, 2018, 03:55:44 PM »
May I suggest milk kefir.  Wonderfully sour.  I let a litre of unpasteurised milk and a tablespoon of the mother sit on the kitchen bench for four or five days before use.  I read that it is the best supplement for one's gut biota, and it would be less delightful with any sort of sweetener or flavour. 

Artificial sweeteners just seem to me to come in a distant second place to sugar or honey when it comes to flavour or health.

I had fermented horse milk (a type of kefir) in Mongolia once.  It is number 10 on the worst drinks of the world (I hate to think how bad numbers 1 to 9 would be).  My guide was impressed that I managed to drink all of the fermented horse milk I was offered, but I only did so in a unsuccessful attempt to get rid of the taste of the sweet the Mongolians eat which tastes like solid baby sick.

I don’t know which one was to blame, but for the next week I had to know where the nearest public convenience was at all times...
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Offline lonely moa

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Re: Artificial Sweeteners and Gut Biota
« Reply #4 on: October 03, 2018, 08:06:26 PM »
May I suggest milk kefir.  Wonderfully sour.  I let a litre of unpasteurised milk and a tablespoon of the mother sit on the kitchen bench for four or five days before use.  I read that it is the best supplement for one's gut biota, and it would be less delightful with any sort of sweetener or flavour. 

Artificial sweeteners just seem to me to come in a distant second place to sugar or honey when it comes to flavour or health.

I had fermented horse milk (a type of kefir) in Mongolia once.  It is number 10 on the worst drinks of the world (I hate to think how bad numbers 1 to 9 would be).  My guide was impressed that I managed to drink all of the fermented horse milk I was offered, but I only did so in a unsuccessful attempt to get rid of the taste of the sweet the Mongolians eat which tastes like solid baby sick.

I don’t know which one was to blame, but for the next week I had to know where the nearest public convenience was at all times...

Good thing you didn't have brekky with the Masai. 

I thought tea with yak butter was pretty nice... if one likes that sort of thing.

After living with the same kefir mother for fifteen years, I think it has been tamed (I have to give away some grains every few months... it just keeps reproducing!).
"Pull the goalie", Malcolm Gladwell.

 

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